Panenské Břežany has been documented in writing since the 13th century. The most important architectural monuments include the Baroque “Upper” chateau and St. Anne’s Chapel from the 18th century, and the “Lower” chateau from the first half of the 19th century built in the Empire style. The Regional Museum Prague-East acquired the Upper Chateau and Chapel in 2012 and built there the Memorial to National Oppression and Resistance during World War II, as during the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia the chateau was seized for the German Reich. The Upper Chateau, where the work was being carried out, was the residence of State Secretary Karl Hermann Frank since 1941, while the Lower Chateau was the home of Reich Protector Konstantin von Neurath, and subsequently Reinhard Heydrich, against whom Czechoslovak paratroopers sent from Great Britain in the frame of Operation Anthropoid carried out a special diversionary operation on 27 May 1942 aiming to assassinate him, he died as a result of it.
The project was not large in scope, but exceptional. The subject of the works carried out was the construction of historical bathrooms including period equipment in the Upper Castle in Panenské Břežany, which is now part of the Memorial of National Oppression and Resistance during the Second World War.